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反常識的科學現象!人被凍死前,會脫下衣服
原創|發布:2019-03-21 19:11:12    更新:2019-03-21 19:11:12
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從直覺上來說,被凍死的人應該是雙手緊緊抱住身體,臉上流露出痛苦的表情才對,但現實情況卻是相反的。在法醫學中,有一個專業名詞叫“反常脫衣現象”,指的是那些凍死的人,很多時候會將自己的衣服脫下,赤身裸體并且面露微笑地死去。

最著名的就是1959年俄羅斯的烏拉爾山遇難事件,9名登山者全部被低溫凍死,但詭異的是,他們的尸體被發現都穿的很單薄,把自己的衣物脫了。

從科學角度來解釋“反常脫衣現象”是因為:下丘腦發出錯誤指令導致的,這種情況會在低溫條件下第二階段發生,意味著人離死亡不遠了。

第一階段

正常人的口腔溫度一般在37攝氏度左右,如果此時周圍環境溫度降低,人體溫度下降到34攝氏度,神經系統就會變得異常敏感,骨骼肌也開始收縮顫抖,消耗糖原釋放熱量,胰島素分泌增加促進葡萄糖分解,人體會感覺到饑餓。

心跳和呼吸都會不自覺地加快,血管逐漸收縮,血液從皮膚外層向內層靠攏,避免熱量散失,這是血液的第一次分配。隨著溫度繼續下降,呼吸功能開始減弱,血液循環逐漸變慢,人體的行動和思維都變得遲鈍,但此時并沒有生命危險。

第二階段

當體溫降到30攝氏度以下時,會出現“反常脫衣現象”。這個溫度下人體四肢血液減少,血液涌入大腦保證腦部供血充分,而血管在經歷了一段時間的麻痹后,兒茶酚胺對血管收縮能力降低,血管出現了異常擴張,血管的血流量突然增加,導致皮膚表面的溫度甚至高于體內溫度,此時皮膚將這個熱信號傳遞給了體溫調節中樞下丘腦,下丘腦發出錯誤指令,讓大腦產生一種渾身都很熱很溫暖的錯覺,這才使人脫衣服并且面露溫暖的微笑。

但其實,這個階段人已經逐步邁入死亡,當溫度繼續降低,下丘腦將會衰竭,呼吸和心跳將會停止,賣火柴的小女孩正是這樣溫暖安詳死去的。

現今,被凍死是非常少見的,即便是街上的流浪漢,也沒有聽說被凍死的。從以往案例來看,絕大多數人被凍死都是因為冬季的傍晚,喝的酩酊大醉倒在了雪地里,少部分情況是登山者在途中體力不支凍死。

內蒙古錫林郭勒從1988年至2015年,共有56例被凍死的案例,其中31人出現了反常脫衣現象,這通常發生在晝夜溫差較大的地區。另外喝酒后人體毛細血管會舒張,低溫環境下人體熱量流失更快,戰斗民族幾瓶伏特加下去,容易醉酒倒在路邊,這也就是為什么戰斗民族很多人喝酒凍死的原因。

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